The Latino Muslim Voice
The July-September 2012 newsletter
1. Quotes of the Month
2. "A Silent Prayer to Allah"
By Samantha Sanchez
3. "Latinos - Who are they?"
By Juan Alvarado
4. "Once Upon a Time in Andalusia"
By Dr. Abdellatif Charafi
5. "Postgraduate: Education with a soul"
From New Straits Times
6. "Tajweed Blog/ Blog Sobre Tajweed"
By Julio C. Colón
7. "Guia De Viaje Al Arte Hispano-Musulman"
By Aznar Fernando
8. "Revista Luz del Islam"
9. "Get your 'Yo Hablo Islam' T-shirt today!" By Wendy Diaz
10. "ICNA Events"
Quotes of the Month
Allah's Apostle said, "The example of a believer is that of a fresh tender plant; from whatever direction the wind comes, it bends it, but when the wind becomes quiet, it becomes straight again. Similarly, a believer is afflicted with calamities (but he remains patient till Allah removes his difficulties.) And an impious wicked person is like a pine tree which keeps hard and straight till Allah cuts (breaks) it down when He wishes." -Sahih Bukhari 7/70/547. Narrated Abu Huraira.
Allah's Apostle said, "The riding person should greet the walking one, and the walking one should greet the sitting one, and the small number of persons should greet the large number of persons." Sahih Bukhari 8/74/252. Narrated Abu Huraira.
"This is the Book in which there is no doubt. It is a guide for those who are God conscious, who believe in the Unseen, who establish regular prayers, and spend in charity out of what We have provided for their sustenance; who believe in this Revelation (the Quran) sent to you (O Muhammad) and the Revelations that were sent before you, and firmly believe in the Hereafter. They are on True Guidance from their Lord and they are the ones who will attain salvation." - The Holy Quran, 2:2-5.
"The land deprived of skillful irrigation of the Moors, grew impoverished and neglected, the richest and most fertile valleys languished and were deserted, and most of the populous cities which had filled every district in Andalusia, fell into ruinous decay; and beggars, friars, and bandits took the place of scholars, merchants and knights. So low fell Spain when she had driven away the Moors. Such is the melancholy contrast offered by her history." - Stanley Lane-Poole, The Moors in Spain.
A Silent Prayer to Allah
By Samantha Sanchez
O Allah! Please grant me one
Who will be the garment for my soul
Who will satisfy half of my deen
And in doing so make me whole
Make him righteous and on your path
In all he'll do and say
And sprinkle water on me at Fajr
Reminding me to pray
May he earn from halal sources
And spend within his means
May he seek Allah's guidance always
To fulfill all his dreams
May he always refer to Qur'an
and the Sunnah as his moral guide
May he thank and appreciate Allah
For the woman at his side
May he be conscious of his anger
And often fast and pray
Be charitable and sensitive
In every possible way
May he honor and protect me
And guide me in this life
And please Allah! Make me worthy
to be his loving wife
And finally, O Allah!
Make him abundant in love and laughter
In taqwa and sincerity
In striving for the hereafter
© December 2003
Latinos - Who are they?
By Juan Alvarado
In this article, I will try to explain some questions on identity and culture and possibly how to best approach Hispanics (for dawa). You might think that it is strange for someone to write about this. I know my neighbor-he's the nice Mexican fellow that lives down the street. Or, maybe you are "in the market" to marry a Latino Muslim. Do you really know who they (or we) are? In addition to the above, I also want to clear up some of the confusion as to who is Latino and what constitutes the Hispanic identity.
As a Hispanic Muslim, I get many marriage requests for other Hispanic Muslims from non-Hispanic Muslims. It is actually amazing the number of requests I see and get. From these requests, I gauge that these people are looking for something in particular. Maybe they are looking for someone that looks like Jennifer Lopez or Ricky Martin. I don't know. The thing is that there is no "typical" Latino/a. Some of the things I'd like to touch on are politics, beliefs, race and ethnicity. Whenever possible, I've tried to illustrate the point with pictures. Talking about race and ethnicity can be a touchy subject, though. I would like to submit my apologies in advance if I offend anyone as this is not my intention.
So, who are we? Better yet, what's in a name? Hispanic or Latino? There are a host of names and categories for what most people refer to as Hispanics or Latinos. Some of these are colloquial. Some are offensive. I will try to stick with some of the better known (non-offensive) ones. Among them are Latin American, Spanish, Latin, and of course Hispanic and Latino among others.
The term 'Hispanic' derives from the Spanish term "hispano" which in turn has its origins in the name of the Roman province of Hispania which later became Spain. In the United States, it has come to describe the culture and the people of Spanish-speaking countries. Hispanic is not the term that can be used to describe the people of Brazil and Portugal, though. Though rarely heard, they should be correctly described as "Lusitanic" from the Roman province of Lusitania (which was part of Hispania and later became Portugal). They are, however, included in the nomenclature of Latino. The term "Latino" most likely comes from the Spanish word for Latin American, "latinoamericano." This is also likely the source of the term "Latin" as well. Some people use the term 'Spanish' to describe Latin Americans. This, however, is incorrect. Although, they may speak Spanish, they are not "Spanish." It would be like describing someone that speaks English as English (which might be correct if you refer to someone from the UK). To say someone is Spanish is to say that they are from Spain. Also, it is the name of the language.
In the United States, the term Hispanic came to prominence in the 1970s as a way to describe people of Latin American descent regardless of race. You may have noticed this in the recent census. There was a separate category for the ethnicity of Hispanics outside of race. The term was mostly a result of the US Senator Joseph Montoya of New Mexico who wanted a label for people of Latin American descent and Spanish-speaking populations for the US Census. The term is an Anglicized form of the Spanish word "hispano" which many Latin Americans called (and call) themselves at the time. The terms Hispanic and Latino are used interchangeably in the United States, however.
Most Hispanics, however, prefer to refer to themselves not as 'Hispanic' or 'Latino' but rather according to their national backgrounds. Example, people from Puerto Rico will call themselves "puertoriqueños" or Puerto Ricans and people from Peru will call themselves "peruanos" or Peruvians and so forth. Among the people that can claim to be Hispanics are people from the following places: Spain (including Ceuta, Melilla, and the Canary Islands), Equatorial Guinea (in Africa), Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, as well as the Hispanics in the United States. Additionally, the people of Latin America (i.e., "Latinos") can also include people from Brazil, Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana.
The language that Latin Americans and their descendants as a whole speak are Spanish, French, Portuguese, English, various creoles and Native American languages as well as the languages of those countries where they have chosen to migrate to and reside. The language that Hispanics speak as cultural inheritors of Spain is Spanish (as well as some of the above mentioned languages). Spanish is both referred to as Spanish (español) and Castilian (castellano). The language or languages that a Latino person may speak depends in large part on who you speak to and where they are from. Some Hispanics do not even speak Spanish anymore because they are descendants of immigrants. You can see this phenomenon in the United States and France among other places. Others could be bilingual or monolingual in the language/s that predominates where they are from (usually Spanish). Do not assume, however, that they all speak Spanish. Some people may only speak indigenous languages from the areas they are from, for example. Even if you know some Spanish, though, do not assume that you will be able to communicate effectively either since there are many regional varieties of Spanish.
Race and Ethnicity
To begin with, there is no Hispanic race. Latin America abounds with people from very diverse backgrounds. The following montage will give you an example of famous and not so famous people of Latin America that happen to be of many different races and ethnicities.
Celia Cruz (October 21, 1925 - July 16, 2003) was a Cuban-American salsa singer who spent most of her career living in New Jersey. She primarily worked in the United States and several Latin American countries. Celia Cruz was one of the most successful Cuban performers of the 20th century. She achieved twenty-three gold albums to her name and earned the nickname "La guarachera de Cuba" (The Salsa singer of Cuba). Leila Cobo of Billboard Magazine once said "Cruz is indisputably the best known and most influential female figure in the history of Cuban music." She is best known for her exclamation "¡azucar!" (sugar).
Edson Arantes do Nascimento (born October 23, 1940 in Três Corações, Brazil), best known by his nickname Pelé, is a former Brazilian soccer (football) player. He is rated by many as the greatest footballer of all time. In the 20th century, he was given the title of "Athlete of the Century" by the International Olympic Committee and jointly received FIFA Player of the Century award chosen by officials at the organization, which he shared with Diego Maradona. In his native Brazil, Pelé is hailed as a national hero. He is known for his accomplishments and contribution to the game. He was officially declared the football ambassador of the world by FIFA and a national treasure by the Brazilian government. He is also acknowledged for his vocal support of policies to improve the social conditions of the poor (he dedicated his 1,000th goal to the poor children of Brazil). During his career, he was called "The King of Football" (O Rei do Futebol), "The King Pelé" (O Rei Pelé) or simply "The King" (O Rei). He is also a member of the American National Soccer Hall of Fame.
Alberto Ken'ya Fujimori (born in Lima, Peru on July 28, 1938) is a Peruvian politician of Japanese descent (he also has Japanese citizenship). He served as President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. Fujimori is a controversial figure. He was credited with uprooting terrorism in Peru and restoring the economy, though his methods have drawn charges of authoritarianism. He is alleged to be accountable for a number of human rights abuses during his presidency, for which he is currently facing trial.
Bruce Kastulo Chen (born June 19, 1977 in Panama City, Panama) is a pitcher for Major League Baseball who is currently signed with the Kansas City Royals. He attended Institute of Panama and studied civil engineering during the baseball off-season at Georgia Tech. He is from the little-known ethnic Chinese community in Latin America. His paternal grandfather, Kuen Chin Chan Lee, joined his brothers and other relatives in Panama when he was 9. Bruce's maternal grandmother, Kuen Yin Liu de Laffo, was actually born in Panama but her family returned to China after a fire destroyed their home. After years of hard labor, she was able to return to Panama at age 24. Both of Bruce's grandparents have died, but he hopes to reconnect with his Chinese roots someday. Chen has previously played for the Baltimore Orioles, Houston Astros, Boston Red Sox, Cincinnati Reds, Montreal Expos, New York Mets, Philadelphia Phillies, Atlanta Braves, among others.
Rigoberta Menchú Tum (born January 9, 1959 in Chimel, Quiché, Guatemala) is an indigenous Guatemalan, of the Quiché-Maya ethnic group. Menchú dedicated her life to publicizing the plight of Guatemala's indigenous peoples during and after the Guatemalan Civil War (1960-1996), and to promoting indigenous rights in the country. She was the recipient of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize and Prince of Asturias Award in 1998. Menchú is a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador. She is the subject of the testimonial biography I, Rigoberta Menchú (1983) and the author of the autobiographical work, Crossing Borders.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro Bolivia) is the President of Bolivia. He is popularly known as Evo and has been declared the country's first fully indigenous head of state since the Spanish Conquest over 470 years ago. This claim has created controversy, though, due to the number of mestizo presidents who came before him. Morales is the leader of Bolivia's cocalero movement - a loose federation of coca leaf-growing campesinos (farmers) who are resisting the efforts of the United States to eradicate coca in the province of Chapare in central Bolivia. Morales is also leader of the Movement for Socialism political party (Movimiento al Socialismo,with the Spanish acronym MAS meaning "more").
Middle Eastern influence
Salma Hayek Jiménez (born September 2, 1966) is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, and Emmy-nominated Mexican-American actress. She is also a Daytime Emmy-winning director and an Emmy-nominated TV and film producer. Hayek has appeared in more than thirty films and performed as an actress outside of Hollywood in Mexico and Spain. Hayek's charitable work includes increasing awareness on violence against women and discrimination against immigrants. Hayek was born in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico. She is the daughter of Diana Jiménez, an opera singer and talent scout, and Sami Hayek, an oil company executive. Hayek's father is of Lebanese descent and her mother is of Spanish descent.
Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born February 2, 1977), known simply as Shakira (Arabic: شاکیرا), is a Colombian contralto singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, record producer, dancer, philanthropist and occasional actress who has been a major figure in the pop music scene of Latin America since the mid-1990s. In 2001, she broke through into the English-speaking world with the release of Laundry Service, which sold over fifteen million copies worldwide. A two-time Grammy Award-winning, seven-time Latin Grammy Award-winning and fifteen-time BMI award-winning artist, Shakira is the highest-selling Colombian artist of all time, having sold more than 50 million albums worldwide according to BMI. She is also the only artist from South America to reach the number-one spot on the Billboard Hot 100, the Australian ARIA chart, the United World Chart and the UK Singles Chart. Shakira was born on February 2, 1977 in Barranquilla, Colombia. She is the only child of Nidya del Carmen Ripoll Torrado, a Colombian of Spanish and Italian ancestry, and William Mebarak Chadid, of Lebanese descent.
Íngrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25, 1961, Bogotá, Colombia) is a Colombian politician, former senator and anti-corruption activist. Betancourt was kidnapped by the FARC, a Colombian guerilla organization, on February 23, 2002 while campaigning for the presidency. She had decided to campaign in an area of high guerrilla presence and ignored warnings from the government, police and military not to do so. She was dramatically rescued from the FARC guerrilla group along with other hostages. She was considered a key hostage for a possible humanitarian exchange of prisoners for hostages with the government of Colombia. Besides Colombia, her kidnapping has received wide coverage in France due to her French nationality.
Verónica Castro (born October 19, 1952 in Mexico City) is a Mexican actress, singer and host. She is the mother of singer Cristian Castro and Michell Castro and the sister of telenovela producer José Alberto Castro. She started her career as a television actress. This is where she met Manuel "El Loco" Valdez, father of her son Cristian. She is best known for starring in fotonovelas and telenovelas.
Mixed heritage - los mestizos & los mulatos
Northern Belize is home to the largest mestizo population in Belize. The term "mestizo" refers to individuals of mixed Spanish (European) and Native (Indigenous) descent. In Belize, where these two young ladies are from, a mestizo refers to a person of mixed Spanish and Yucatan Mayan descent whose primary language is Spanish and religion Catholic. Because of the large mestizo population within Orange Walk and Corozal, northern Belize demographically resembles Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula more than any Belizean region.
Mulatto (from Portuguese or Spanish mulato and possibly from the Arabic muladi) is a person who has both black African and white European ancestry. It can also be used as an adjective to describe something as a light brown color. This word is regarded as pejorative or even offensive by most English speakers but this is not the case in Spanish. It has been used since slave times to define a person of mixed heritage. Mulattos represent a significant portion of various countries in Latin America. A sample of their percentages follows: Belize (approx. 24.9%), Dominican Republic (approx. 73%), Brazil (approx. 38.5%), Cuba (approx. 24.86%), Colombia (approx. 14%), Puerto Rico (approx. 4.4%), and Haiti (approx. 5%). The roughly 200,000 Africans brought to Mexico were for the most part absorbed by the mestizo populations of mixed European and Amerindian descent. The state of Guerrero once had a large population of African slaves. Other Mexican states inhabited by people with some African ancestry, along with other ancestries, include Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Yucatan.
*Percentages based on the 2010 CIA World Factbook
Some Hispanics may have assimilated.
Cameron Diaz was born in San Diego, California to Emilio Diaz and Billie (née Early). Diaz's father is a second-generation Cuban-American and her mother is Anglo-German. On one occasion when Diaz was asked if she can speak Spanish, she responded saying: "I know what you're saying, I really do. I just cannot respond to you back in Spanish. I can barely speak English properly. I didn't grow up in a Cuban or Latin community. I grew up in Southern California on the beach, basically. And I'm third generation. I'm of Cuban descent, but I'm American."
You may not even know that someone is Hispanic from their name...
Governor Bill Richardson
William Blaine "Bill" Richardson III (born November 15, 1947) was Governor of New Mexico until 2011. He was a candidate for the Democratic Party's nomination to run for the President of the United States in 2008. He previously served as a U.S. Representative, Ambassador to the United Nations, and as the U.S. Secretary of Energy. He was chairman of the 2004 Democratic National Convention as well as Chairman of the Democratic Governors Association in 2005 and 2006. Richardson has been recognized for negotiating the release of hostages, American servicemen, and political prisoners in North Korea, Iraq, and Cuba. He has been nominated four times for the Nobel Peace Prize. Bill Richardson was born in Pasadena, California to William Blaine Richardson Jr. (1891-1972), a banker who lived and worked in Mexico City for decades, and MarÃa Luisa López-Collada Márquez (born 1914). Just before Richardson was born, his mother was sent to California, where her husband's sister lived, to give birth because, as Richardson explained, "My father had a complex about not having been born in the United States." Three of his four grandparents were Mexican, and he identifies himself as Hispanic. Richardson was raised in Mexico City.
When most people think of Hispanics, they tend to think of Catholicism. Roman Catholicism is the faith that Spaniards brought with them from Spain to the New World. It continues to be the predominant religion of most Hispanics. There are, however, Protestant minorities among Hispanics. Most Protestant Hispanics belong to Evangelical and Pentecostal churches. There are many that belong to other churches too, though. Besides Christianity, however, Hispanics have a multitude of other religious beliefs. There are Jewish Hispanics as well as Muslim Hispanics (of course). I've met Buddhist Latinos and have heard of Bahai Hispanics. Many Latinos follow other esoteric beliefs systems, too, such as Santeria, Spiritism, Santuario, Candomble, Palo Mayombe, Voodoo, Curanderismo as well as many other non-traditional religions. It should come as no surprise that some Latinos are also atheists.
Political Views and Movements
The political views of Latinos can range from the far left to the far right. Communism and socialism hold a strong fascination for many Hispanics. Indeed, I have met many Dominicans whose name is Vladimir and Ivan due to their parents' admiration of Russians with the same names. In addition to this, though, as can be found in the United States, there are Republican and Democratic Hispanics. Some are anarchists and others are particularly capitalists.
To conclude, Hispanics come from many different countries. They speak many languages and belong to many races and ethnicities. Some are not merely of a particular race but can be mixed.. As cited above, Latinos have diverse opinions regarding politics. Although there are some things that bond them, they are not static. Keeping this in mind, when introducing someone to Islam, it would be beneficial to first find out more about them -- where they are from, what do they believe, do they prefer beisbol or futbol, what is their background, and what do they think? Know who you are talking to. In this way, you may be able to more effectively tell them about the beauties of Islam.
Once Upon a Time in Andalusia
By Dr. Abdellatif Charafi
This article is intended to be a trip in time
to a very special period in world history: from the ninth to the
thirteenth century in Andalusia, and more specifically in
Córdoba, where a million people lived in Europe's largest city,
the cultural center of that period. There existed no
separation between rigorous scientific study, wisdom and faith.
Nor was East separated from West; nor was the Muslim from
the Jew or the Christian. It was there that the European
Renaissance actually began, and from where it grew.
By examining the trajectory of Islam in
Andalusia, the objective is not to praise an illustrious dead, but to
reintroduce in our life the affirmation of absolute and universal
values of Islam without which our society will inevitably
The Myth of the Muslim Conquest of Spain
More than five hundreds years have elapsed
since Islam was irradicated from Spain. The event was
celebrated in grandeur at Expo '92 in Seville, during which the
organizers tried to make us believe that Spain was formed by over seven
centuries of continuous struggle against Islam. But was the
defeat of the Muslims on 2 January 1492 a liberation for the
Spaniards? Was the reign of the Muslims a colonization of the
When looking at the Muslim expansion in Spain
one is struck by its speed, its generally peaceful aspect and
civilizational component. It took the Muslims less than three
years (from 711 to 714) and one battle (at Guadalete, near
Cadiz) to spread throughout the whole of Spain. In contrast to
this, it took the Prophet Muhammad twenty-two years (from 610 to
632) and nineteen expeditions to get Arabia to accept Islam.
This difference in both time and effort, to gain Arabia and Spain
to Islam, is due to theological affinities as well as
socio-cultural and politico-economical reasons which appealed to
Pre-Islamic Arabia was predominantly
polytheist, with small Jewish and Christian communities. There, Islam
had to fight against a 'world without law' (Jahiliyya) to
make monotheism prevail. Pre-Islamic Spain was Christian with
important Jewish communities. This difference, according to
Roger Garaudy, not only explains the speed of the expansion, but
also its type.
W. Montgomery Watt in A History of Islamic
It is a common misapprehension that
the holy war meant
that the Muslims gave their opponents
a choice "between
Islam and the sword". This was
sometimes the case, but
only when the opponents were
idol-worshippers. For Jews, Christians
and other "People
of the Book", that is, monotheists
scriptures - a phrase that was very
interpreted - there was a third
possibility, they might
become a "protected group", paying a
tax or tribute to
the Muslims but enjoying internal
The case of Spain is therefore not exceptional
and that is due
to the very essence of Islam.
The Prophet Muhammad never pretended to create
a new religion:
'Say: I am no bringer of a new-fangled
doctrine among the
Messenger' (45:9); and 'Nothing is said to
thee that was not
said to the messengers before thee' (41:43).
He came to remind the people of the Primordial
ye: We believe in God, and the revelation
given to us, and to
Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the
tribes, and that given
to Moses and Jesus, and that given to all the
their Lord: we make no difference between one
and another of
them: and we bow to God (in Islam).'
Islam came to confirm the previous
messages, to purify
them from historical alterations to which they
and to complete them. The Qur'an says: 'If
thou wert in doubt as
to what We have revealed unto thee, then ask
those who have been
reading the Book from before thee.' (10:94).
The Muslim community was then opened, without
distinction to all
those who believe in the unity and
transcendence of God.
Besides, in the Iberian Peninsula there raged
a civil war
between Trinitarian Christians, who accepted
the Trinity and the
divinity of Jesus, and Arian Christians, who
saw Jesus not as
God but as a Prophet inspired by God. The
Council of Nicea in
325, invoked by the emperor Constantine in
order to unify
ideologically his empire, imposed the dogma of
condemned the teachings of Anus of Alexandria
who refused these
dogmas. The conflict erupted, when in 709, the
Christians declared Roderick as king. The
archbishop of Seville
opposed him and the inhabitants of present
revolted against his rule. When Roderick
invaded Andalusia, the
inhabitant of the latter looked south help.
The able Berber
General Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed to Algeciras
and a battle in
Guadalete, near Cadiz took place. The Bishop
of Seville as well
as that of Toledo rallied to the Muslim army.
The peasants had a very difficult time, were
reduced to the status of slaves. Poverty,
and instability were the order of the day.
Even the free men
felt themselves to be underprivileged. There
discontent, and many ordinary people looked on
the Muslims as
liberators and gave them all the assistance
they could. The Jews
who have been persecuted for a long time under
the Visigoth rule
(e.g. a special decree in 694 enslaved all
those who did not
accept baptism), opened the gates of many
cities. So deep and
widespread was the satisfaction given to all
classes that during
the whole of the eight century there was not a
single revolt of
It is difficult to understand how a small army
could cross the
whole of Spain in less than three years if one
military invasion. The historian Dozy, in
Histoire des Musulmans
d'Espagne, describes the event as 'a good
thing for Spain' which
produced an important social revolution,
setting the country
free from the chains it was groaning under for
were much less compared to those imposed by
governments. The Muslims introduced land
reforms by taking land
from the rich and distributing it equally
and slaves. The new owners worked it with
zeal. Commerce was
liberated from the limitations and high taxes
that caused its
demise. Slaves could set themselves free in
return for a fair
compensation, something which threw in new
energies. All these
measures, says Dozy, created a state of
well-being which was the
reason behind the welcoming of the Muslims.
The great Spanish writer Blasco Ibanez in Dans
l'ombrc de la
cathédrale talks about a 'civilizational
expedition' coming from
the south rather than a conquest. To Ibanez,
it was not an
invasion imposing itself by arms, it was a new
vigorous roots were sprouting from everywhere.
conquering Muslims, he says: 'The principle of
conscience, cornerstone of the greatness of
nations, was dear to
them. In the cities they ruled, they accepted
the church of the
Christian and the synagogue of the Jew.'
History, therefore makes it clear that the
legend of fanatical
Muslims sweeping through Spain and forcing
Islam at the point of
the sword is an absurd myth. The expansion of
Islam in Spain was
not a military conquest, but a liberation.
The Meaning of Life in Andalusia
The meaning of life and its goal in Andalusia
at the time of its
Islamic apogy, directed each act of day to day
life, as well as
scientific and technical research. The
spiritual giants like the
Muslims Ibn Rushd (i (1126-1198) known in the
West as AverroÃ«s
and Ibn Arabi (1165-1240), or the Jewish
(11351204), are some of the men who put across
the message of Andalusia. This spirit lay
behind all the
scientific and technical progress of those
Science was not set apart from wisdom and
faith, and nothing can
express this fact better than Ibn Rushd when
Our philosophy would serve for nothing
if it were not
able to link these three things which
I have tried to
join in my 'Harmony of science and
A Science, founded on experience and
logic, to discover
A Wisdom, which reflects on the
purpose of every
scientific research so that it serves
to make our life
A Revelation, that of our Qur'an, as
it is only through
revelation that we know the final
purposes of our life
and our history.
The unity of the Abrahamic tradition and the
to philosophy are expressed with the same
force, in the work of
the Jewish philosopher Maimonides, who was a
contemporary of Ibn
Rushd. At the synagogue before the Torah, he
If for Ibn Rushd the Holy Book is not
our Torah but the
Qur'an, we both agree about the
contributions of reason
and of revelation. These are two
manifestations of one
same divine truth. There is only a
one is faithful to a literal reading
of the scriptures,
forgetting about their eternal
In Andalusia, Islam takes a new dimension with
nicknamed Muhyi al-Din (the one who gives life
to faith). What
interested Ibn Arabi was not what a man said
about his faith,
but rather what this faith makes of that man.
God is unity. The unity of love, of
the lover and the
beloved. Every love is a wish for
union. Every love
consciously or unconsciously is a love
Bear witness to this presence of God
within yourself, of
God's creation, which never ceases.
The act is the
exterior manifestation of faith. Islam
the Prophets as messengers of the same
God. Learn to
discover in each man the seed of a
desire for God, even
if his belief is still dim and
sometime idolatrous. Help
to lead him towards the fullest Light.
Ibn Rushd endeavours to bring to light the
universal message of
Islam overshadowed by regional traditions,
when he defines the
best society as, 'That where every woman,
every child and every
man is given the means of developing the
possibilities God has
given to each of them.' The power to establish
it 'will not be a
theocracy, like that of the Christians of
Europe, a power of
religious accomplices or tyrants: God says in
the Qur'an, "He
has breathed into man His spirit". Let us make
Him live in every
man!' When asked about the conditions ofsuch a
answers: 'A society will be free and pleasing
to God, when none
acts either out of fear of the Prince or of
Hell, nor the wish
of a reward from a Courtesan or of Paradise,
and when no-one
says: This is mine.'
Islam in Andalusia gave birth to a number of
who have shown that humanity has no future
without the warmth
and the spiritual values that emanate from the
belief in the
transcendence and oneness of God. Men such as
Ibn Massara of
Córdoba (883-931), for whom man was
responsible of his own
history; Ibn Hazm of Córdoba (994-1064) who
was a pioneer of the
comparative history of religions; Ibn Gabirol
(1020-1070) whose fundamental work was the
synthesis of the
Jewish faith and the philosophy of Ibn
Massara; Ibn Bajja
(1090-1139) with whom the Islamic philosophy
xvas presented in a
systematic way with its own direction; Ibn
Tufayl from Cádiz
(1100-1185) whose central theme was the
relation between reason
All these men of knowledge, wisdom and faith
stand as memories
to a glorious past when true Islam was
preached and practised; a
time when the beautiful example of the Muslims
won them fame and
respect; a time when these peace-loving people
would rise simply
because injustice was being practised and
would fight in the
name of God with a strength that led handfuls
of believers to
victory over armies of non-believers.
The Style of Life in Andalusia
Andalusia was unique in terms of its tangible
all spheres of life. Learning was emphasized,
marked by a
fascination with science, the Arabic
literature and the
philosophical discourse on reason and faith.
In the world
created in the land of Andalusia, there was
wealth in terms of consumption, and wealth of
exchange. There was also a wealth of
information, thanks to the
libraries of Córdoba and a wealth of thinking
about the meaning
of life, God, and material things. And there
were even poets who
sang to all the ways of wealth.
We will restrict ourselves to a brief
description of the
scientific and technical achievement, and a
account of the Mosque of Córdoba as it is one
of the first
monumental expressions of Muslim rule, and
arguably the building
that most fully embodied an image of the
Muslim hegemony in
Scientific and Technical Achievement
When discussing the scientific development in
cannot separate it either from the
contributions of the other
great civilizations, nor from the wisdom and
faith that inspired
the efforts of all researchers in Andalusia:
science is One
because the world is One, the world is One
because God is One.
This principle of tawhid commanded all aspects
research in Andalusia as well as in other
parts of the Islamic
world, at its period of apogy. The following
are some of the
achievements of such a philosophy of life.
The first attempt to fly was in Córdoba by Abu
Al-Zahrawi, born near Córdoba in 936, was one
of the greatest
surgeon of all times. His encyclopedia of
surgery was used as a
standard reference work in the subject in all
Europe for over five hundred years.
Al-Zarqalli, who was born in
Córdoba, devised the astrolabe: an instrument
which is used to
measure the distance of the stars above the
astrolabe made it possible to determine one s
position in space
and the hours of the day, to navigate and to
call the faithful
to prayer at the given time.
Al-Idrisi, who was born in Ceuta in 1099 and
studied at Córdoba,
drew maps for the King Roger II of Sicily in
which he used
methods of projection to pass from the
spherical shape of the
earth to the planisphere that were very
similar to those used by
Mercator four centuries later.
The agricultural and irrigation methods of the
Muslims of Spain
were revealed by the great Italian engineer
who came to Andalusia to study the hydraulic
techniques of eleventh century Muslim Spain to
problems of the sixteenth century in Italy.
The Great Mosque of Córdoba
Córdoba deserves its titles of the 'bride of
the cities' and the
'jewel of the tenth century'. A city of
factories and workshops,
which attracted many scholars and produced her
own. It was the
first city with street lights in Europe. It
rose to eminence as
the torch of learning and civilization at a
time when the
Normans had savaged Paris and England had been
ransacked by the
Danes and Vikings. Its showpiece was its
which is the most famous building of Spain
after the Alhambra
palace in Granada.
The foundations of the mosque were laid by Abd
al-Rahman I in
785 on the site of an old Christian church.
Since the time of
the conquest in 711, the church had been used
by both Muslims
and Christians. The Muslims bought the church
because of the
growth of the population at that time, and not
religious intolerance. It had been enlarged
then in 912, and mainly in 961, by al-Hakam
II, with its
splendid mihrab. Al-Mansur, in 987, doubled
the prayer hall
which then contained 600 columns. It had
perturbated in 1236, when Córdoba fell to
Ferdinard III of
Castille and chapels were inserted, and
further in 1523 when a
cathedral was built in the heart of the
mosque. King Charles V
is recorded to have remarked upon seeing the
new cathedral: 'Had
I known what this was, I would not have given
touch the old, because you are making what
exists in many other
places and you have unmade what was unique in
the world.' As we
can see it today, despite the opposition of
government to a UNESCO project to move the
cathedral as it is
without omitting the least detail (as the
temple of Abu Simbal
in Egypt was moved), the Mosque of Córdoba
still reflects the
image of the Muslim art at its best.
The practical problem faced by the architect
of the Córdoba
Mosque for the construction of a huge room for
a big community,
was to raise the roof of the oratory to a
to the extent of the building, so that a
depression-like the one we feel when we get
into an underground
parking can be dispelled. The antique columns,
building-spoils which were available, were
insufficient. It was
therefore necessary to supplement them, and
the example of
Damascus suggested arcades on two levels. But
the model of
Córdoba has a very surprising feature: the
lower and upper
arcades are no longer part of a wall, but are
reduced to their
pillars and arches without any intermediate
masonry. The upper
arches which support the roof, rest on the
same pillars as the
lower arches. Such a concept, without
precedent in the history
of architecture and unique to the Córdoba
Mosque, is a real
defiance to the weight and inertia of stones.
Let us say, to give a better picture of the
image evoked by this
architecture, that the curves of both series
of arches soar like
palm- fronds from the same trunk, which rests
upon a relatively
slender column, without the feeling of being
too heavy for it.
The arches with their many-coloured and
have such expansive strength that they dispel
any suggestion of
weight. This _expression in static terms of a
reality which goes
beyond the material plane, is due to the
outline of the arches.
The lower ones are drawn out beyond the shape
of a pure
semicircle, whereas the upper ones are more
open and purely
Many archaeologists have suggested that the
composition of the
arcs used by the architect of Córdoba was
inspired by the Roman
aqueduct in Merida. However, there is a
between the two compositions. The Roman
architect had respected
the logic of the gravity, a building's support
proportionate to the weight, thus the upper
arcs must be lighter
than the supporting elements. For the Córdovan
more generally for all Islamic
architecture-this rule does not
To answer this question we have to move from
considerations, to the symbolic _expression of
space in the
Muslim prayer, which was the most important
the 'Master' of Córdoba. The purpose was not
to achieve an
architectural exploit, but rather to create a
new type of
space-one that seems to be breathing and
expanding outwards from
an omnipresent centre. The limits of space
play no role at all;
the walls of the prayer hall disappear beyond
a forest of
arcades. Their sheer repetition (there were
900 of them in the
original mosque) giving an impression of
Space is qualified here not by its boundaries
but by the
movement of the arcades, if one may describe
it as movement.
This expansion which is both powerful yet in
Titus Burckhardt describes this as being 'a
objectively static but never anthropomorphic.'
It is to al-Hakam II that we owe the
marvellous mihrab, the
master piece of Córdovan art, as well as the
which stand before it, including their
interlacing arcades. The niche of this mihrab,
which is very
deep, is surrounded in its upper part by an
arch, that is like
an apparition and a source of light, of which
the very curve
seems to dilate, like a chest breathing in the
air of infinity.
According to the highest Muslim spirituality,
beauty is one of
the 'signs' which evokes the Divine Presence.
above the symphony of colours, in severe Kufi
the Oneness of God.
The Mosque of Córdoba is the embodiment of the
of Islam. Muhammad Iqbal in his poem A Ia
mosquée de Cordoue
Oh! Holy Mosque of Córdoba
Shrine for all lovers of art
Pearl of the one true faith
Sanctifying Andalusia's soil
Like Holy Mecca itself
Such a glorious beauty
Will be found on earth
Only in a true Muslim's heart
Who Killed Islam in Andalusia
The scientific and philosophical learning of
the Andalusians was
channelled off beyond the Pyrenees, to
irrigate the dry pastures
of European intellectual life. Students from
flocked to the libraries and universities set
up by the Muslims
in Spain. This decisively changed the European
mind, and it is
no exaggeration to say that Western
civilization owes its
regeneration to the intellectual energy
released by the dynamo
that was Islam. The period of regeneration,
which started in
Florence in sixteenth century Italy, is
referred to by the West
as the Renaissance. It was a direct result of
Renaissance which began at the university of
Córdoba in ninth
century Spain. This profound truth of our
common history becomes
clear when we know how to listen to the music
of the stones of
Córdoba. There is, however, a fundamental
difference between the
two 'renaissances': the one which started in
Córdoba was based
on faith and was conscious of the universality
of the divine;
the one which began in Florence was made
against God with its
essential project of secularising all aspects
The reasons leading to the death of the
renaissance generated by Islam, can be
understood best by
reference to the causes of its success. Islam
spectacular success entirely to the teachings
of the Qur'an and
the example (Sunna) of the Prophet Muhammad
(s). The active
vigour of the system was neutralized as soon
as the Muslims
relegated the Qur'an to the status of a
treatise on dogmas, and
the Sunna became a mere system of laws and a
without any living meaning. In his Muqaddima,
condemns the methods of education practised by
some of the
fuqaha' of Andalusia when, he says that,
instead of helping the
student to 'understand the content of the book
on which he is
working', they force him 'to learn it by
The Maliki school of thought (madhhab) was so
Andalusia to the point that no other madhahib
were taught, and
knowing by heart the Muwatta' of Imam Malik
and its commentaries
was enough to make a faqih a renowned scholar.
This closure of
the door of ijtihad (independent judgement),
which would have
been condemned by Imam Malik himself were he
to witness it, was
encouraged by most of the rulers of Andalusia
for it implies an
unconditional obedience to the established
power. It led to an
intellectual degeneration, the treatment to
giants mentioned before illustrates this best.
Ibn Massara was
forced to exile; Ibn Hazm was evicted from
books were burned; the universal library of
al-Hakam II was
thrown into the river; Ibn Tufayl and Ibn
Rushd were expelled;
and Ibn Arabi evicted. All these acts were not
Christians, but by fellow Muslims! These were
but signs that
this grand structure represented by Islam
which had weathered
many a storm, had reached a stage when its
inner vitality had
been slowly sapped away and one powerful blast
might well uproot
it from the soil on which it has been thriving
The early Muslim conquerors in Spain had a
mission which made it
impossible for them to be selfish, cruel or
moment this was lost on their successors,
their clannish spirit
replaced their unity of purpose. At one time
there were as many
as twelve Muslim dynasties. That was a signal
for collapse. The
Muslim society came to represent a decadent
incapable of dynamic growth and with no
capacity for effective
resistance. Under such circumstances, it is
difficult for any
society to survive a serious external threat.
The Muslim rule
over the Iberian Peninsula started to shrink
on account of the
treachery of the different Muslim Princes
until Granada fell to
the hands of the Crusades on 2 January 1492.
When Abu Abdullah the last king of Granada,
looked at the
Alhambra for the last time, tears came into
his eyes. At this,
his aged mother Aisha said: 'Abu Abdullah Cry
like a women for a
kingdom you could not defend as a man.' But
our history should
play a more inspiring and guiding function
than to reminisce
about the past. When one sees all these
marvels, and all these
palaces left in Andalusia-one wonders: Surely,
there must have
been injustice, there must have been
oppression. As Abu Dharr
said to Mu'awiya: '0 Mu'awiya! If you are
building this palace
with your own money, it is extravagance and if
with the money of
the people, it is treason'. We should not
glorify our past and
our ancestors regardless of their mistakes.
Our study of the
history of Islam should be more objective, and
not a mere
justification of all acts by our predecessors.
We must aim to ensure that the tragedy of
Andalusia is not repeated. To do that we must not address our
children: Once upon a time in Palestine... Once upon a time in
Bosnia... We need a true Islamic Renaissance that will lead us to
the eternal and universal Islam. An Islam that is the constant
appeal for resisting all oppression because it excludes
any submission other than to the will of God and holds man
responsible for the accomplishment of the divine order on earth.
An Islam, in the words of Roger Garaudy, whose principles are:
in the economical field: God alone possesses,
in the political field: God alone commands,
in the cultural field: God alone knows.
It is for us to respond to this eternally
living call: without imitating the West and without imitating the
Postgraduate: Education with a soul
From New Straits Times
March 15, 2012
Conventional postgraduate studies with an Islamic essence are what the International Islamic University Malaysia offers its potential students. A form of blended studies where students have the opportunity to obtain an orthodox graduate degree and on top of that, Professor Dr Hassanuddeen Abd Aziz, Dean of IIUM's Centre of Postgraduate Studies, points out that Islamic approaches in all disciplines will be given
"In all our programmes, students are exposed to the Islamic vantage point. Using what they have learned, we expect our students at a postgraduate level to be able to formulate solutions to issues that may arise in their field of study by incorporating an alternative way of thinking. Doing so allows them an escape from repeating the same mistakes that occur when the standard solutions are offered time and again."
The holistic nature of Islamic approaches in education at IIUM works as a much needed counterbalance to the customary western-based programmes. When reviewing the corporate and economic situation thus far, and how the pillars of western education have not been able to shoulder the burden of the new world economy in a sustainable way, it is only natural for academicians seek out auxiliary sources to replace the current structure. With a rich history and ethics-bound tradition, specialised practitioners from Islamic backgrounds would be a welcome change from the tales of corporate greed that have become all too common these days.
In terms of unique education, IIUM has been a front runner in many Islamic-based programmes. Islamic banking and finance, while gaining enthusiastic global recognition in the past decade, has been on IIUM's programme list since the university itself first began in 1983. Currently IIUM has continued this focus on education with a religious basis through programmes under the Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, the Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance as well as through discussions and studies carried on throughout all their offered courses in all the faculties. IIUM is a comprehensive university offering basically all branches of knowledge.
The Centre for Postgraduate Studies (CPS) acts as a gateway for postgraduate students. All admissions pass through CPS to ensure applicants are of the minimum grade before being handed over to the individual faculties, where the students are chosen according to criteria and screened for suitability. This screening process is one of the methods IIUM implements to ensure the quality of its students, and subsequently, its programmes.
"Students that are up to par allow our education processes to evolve with them," says Professor Hassanuddeen, who assures that the success of a student's entry is wholly merit based. "This is important in maintaining a high standard of education. Most of our teaching and learning processes are ISO approved, and when push comes to shove, getting better students allows our programmes to achieve the standards that we had promised them in the first place."
The postgraduate programmes at IIUM are constantly evolving and improving, and this is reflected in the attributes of the students they turn out - well-spoken, in possession of clear communicative skills and capable of laying out intelligent ideas concisely. "It is the environment here that shapes them," Professor Hassanuddeen avers. "As the Garden of Knowledge and Virtue, we champion the Islamisation of knowledge. This gives our students a sturdy foundation to stand on."
A strong grasp of English is another aspect that allows IIUM students to flourish once they graduate. The university is licensed to teach in English from the top down, and Professor Hassanuddeen believes that this fluency and exposure to English helps the students by giving them confidence in their communication.
How does IIUM serve postgraduate academics looking for studies with aspects in Islam, while at the same time fulfilling the needs of the industry in a satisfying manner? The key to this is the programme reviews that are carried out every two years. "Once a cohort graduates, we carry out a thorough review of that programme, adjusting it to contemporary demands," explains Professor Hassanuddeen. "We convene a board of studies for the review, which includes specialised practitioners, invited from the corporate world to give their input based on experience, as well as our own academics."
While most universities conduct reviews every half a dozen years, IIUM carries it out at a regular interval as part of their culture of quality, ensuring that changes for the best can be incorporated as soon as possible into their programmes.
CPS also hopes that its active postgraduate community will help in the university's bid for Research University (RU) status from the Ministry of Higher Education. "A large postgraduate community is integral to attaining and maintaining RU status, and the CPS will play an important role in this," Professor Hassanuddeen states. In anticipation of a heightened research status, IIUM has encouraged graduate studies in all spheres, and tried to address the needs of research and funding constructively to provide a well-rounded postgraduate education.
"Right now, IIUM has students from about 106 countries, and we are looking to increase that number," Professor Hassanuddeen reveals. "For now, we are interested in creating awareness in Latin America. We have been working closely with NGOs in South America. These NGOs are interested in the Islamic component of the education that we offer, and this would appeal to the Muslim community in Latin America."
Latin American students who choose to study at IIUM should rest assured that their welfare will be well taken care of. The International Affairs Division and the CPS work closely together to lend international students a helping hand, whether it is a pickup from the airport to the university, or assistance in finding accommodations.
Why does IIUM hold such an appeal to students throughout the globe? "We have always been foremost about our intention to champion the ummah," answers Professor Hassanuddeen. "During Friday prayers, you can hear the students answering the call to worship together, and later they talk to each other in different languages and accents. We welcome them from every part of the world, and their presence here creates a deep sense of community while at the same time showing the diversity of Islam."
This is the very essence of IIUM, and through its graduate students who form a community of specialised knowledge, it embodies an ideal of a university with a soul.
Tajweed Blog/ Blog Sobre Tajweed
By Julio C. Colón
October 3, 2011
As Salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatu Allahi wa Barakaatuh,
I started a blog to transcribe tajweed rules into Spanish. There's really no place to get it all in one place in Spanish that I know of. I hope to post up at least once a week. Please share with your Castillian-speaking friends.
He empezado un blog en español sobre la reglas de la ciencia de taywíd. Espero escribir una nota acerca de una regla por semana in sha' Allah. Por favor comparte el blog con cualquier hermano/a que se interese en el tema.
Guia De Viaje Al Arte Hispano-Musulman
By Aznar Fernando
Guia Total, Anaya Touring Club, 328 páginas, 2005.
Un apasionante y exhaustivo viaje por la cultura hispanomusulmana que
nos llevará a atravesar nuestra geografía desde los castillos
fronterizos de las tierras del Duero o el Ebro levantados por el
califato hasta las plazas fuertes que defendieron el reino nazarí, el
valle del Guadalquivir, los desiertos almerienses o las fértiles
tierras levantinas. Un recorrido en el tiempo por lugares tan unidos a
la leyenda como La Alambra o Medina Zahara, pasando por alcazabas
como Toledo, Ronda, Córdoba o la perdida Medina Siyasa en Cieza,
Murcia, todo ello apoyado en una completa documentación gráfica.Una
obra imprescindible para viajeros y estudiosos ya que, de manera
general y como complemento a las fichas de acceso y descripción de
cada monumento, se incluyen introducciones a la historia y al arte
andalusíes acompañadas de tablas cronológicas y dinásticas.
Revista Luz del Islam
Título: Revista Luz del Islam
Descripción resumida: Revista Islámica mensual
sobre distintos temas de interés para el musulmán.
Get your 'Yo Hablo Islam' T-shirt today!
By Wendy Diaz
July 19, 2012
As salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu Brothers and Sisters,
In an effort to raise funds to keep our Islamic children's books (bilingual in English/Spanish) in print, Hablamos Islam is selling the "Yo Hablo Islam" T-shirt! "Yo Hablo Islam" means "We Speak Islam!" It is a way to bridge gaps between us and those who speak Spanish, and insha'Allah, open up opportunities for dialogue. And besides that, it just looks cool!
If you have been wondering where you can get one, we have a box full of them from sizes Small to X-Large! They are only $12 each! You can order one personally from us by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org or order online: http://nuestratiendita.bigcartel.com/
All proceeds to to Hablamos Islam dawah projects! There is no better time to contribute to this cause than now, as we enter into the blessed month of Ramadan.
We are currently raising money to send a box of books to Masjid Othman ibn Affan in Barranquilla, Colombia, South America. At the request of the imam there, they are in need of books to distribute to the Muslim children during the month of Ramadan, insha'Allah.
The approximate cost to print the books they need and ship them to Colombia is $600.
Read about our books here: http://www.muslimlinkpaper.com/community-news/community-news/3110-local-muslim-authors-investing-in-future-with-books-for-children.html
Ideally, we should send the books no later than mid-Ramadan so that they can arrive before Eid. With your purchase of a T-Shirt, you will be helping this cause, insha'Allah. Donations are also welcome. Please email me if you are interested. JazakumAllahu khaiyran.
August 13, 2012
Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,
Dear brothers and sisters,
We have reached the last ten days of Ramadan, Alhamdulillah! I pray that Allah (SWT) makes these days a source of purification for us all.
As you know, Dawah is a large part of ICNA's work. ICNA brings knowledge of our deen to our friends, neighbors and communities; our Dawah programs are extremely important in bringing the true message of Islam to the public at a time when Islamophobia and hate are on the rise.
I write to you to ask for your support of these efforts. Your contribution to ICNA will support major initiatives such as:
Islamic literature & DVDs: Thousands of informational brochures, Islamic books and multimedia items on various topics are provided for the general public. Brochures are available in English, Spanish and Chinese, and translations of the Quran are also available in numerous languages.
Dawah to Latinos: ICNA hopes to increase its Dawah efforts amongst the Hispanic community in the future InshaAllah. Several new initiatives like all Spanish booths, more trained Spanish speaking volunteers, Spanish literature, Spanish language support on the 1-877-WhyIslam hotline etc have already been launched and several other initiatives are planned.
Dawah to the movers and shakers of society: With your help, ICNA will focus its efforts on educating community leaders, elected officials, interfaith leaders, educators and media personnel on Islam. This will help us take the message of Islam to those who have the means to shape the narrative on Islam.
Call centers: Trained volunteers operate national hotlines dedicated to answering questions about Islam and arrange local mosque visits for those interested in learning more. Currently we have the 1-877-WhyIslam, 1-800-662-Islam (by GainPeace) and the 1-855-Shariah for the Shariah campaign.
Information booths: Arranged at street fairs, malls, book fairs, and high traffic areas across the country, Dawah booths provide the public with the opportunity to ask questions about Islam. Thousands visit these booths and ask for brochures, DVDs and translated copies of the Holy Quran.
Social services: Projects such as the Back to School Giveaway are a form of Dawah through action. ICNA's social services create a sense of community and bonding between Muslims and their neighbors.
Dawah ad campaigns: Billboards on major freeways are covered with Islamic messages and an invitation to call the Dawah hotline. ICNA also sponsors radio, TV and subway ads in major cities across the country.
Dawah in prison: Volunteers have established direct contact with prison inmates through personal correspondence. Hundreds of inmates have turned their lives around and accepted Islam through the correspondence system.
As Ramadan comes to a close, let us look back and reflect on what we've done to make a difference this month. Your donation to ICNA will bring the light of Islam to others. Commit to making a difference and donate today.